Biomass is one of the most versatile and most widely used energy sources on the planet. It is a biodegradable fraction of a product or residue from vegetal and animal substances from agriculture, forestry or the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste. Compared with other forms of renewables such as wind, water or solar energy, biomass great advantage is that you can use everywhere. The total mass of biomass on Earth, including moisture, is 2,000 billion tons, the weight of biomass for one person is 400 tons.
In professional circles (though clearly not the case) it is often speaks of both fossil and renewable, first, the so-called. fresh biomass. When fossil fuels that we use today (coal, oil, natural gas), there is negatively affecting the environment: when combusted because the atmosphere is receiving substances that have been stored for millions of years beneath the earth’s surface. Unlike the burning of fresh biomass in terms of greenhouse gas neutral.
In practice, we know the various subdivisions of biomass. The most basic division is by manufacturing industries, where biomass is produced, and these are the sectors of agriculture, forestry, biomass from industries and municipal biomass. In terms of the amount of biomass produced the most biomass produced in the agricultural sector which, by their acreage represents 47% of the area of Slovakia. The second sector is forestry, which, by their acreage accounts for about 41% of the area and other sources of biomass, municipal sphere, which produces municipal waste and its components biodegradable municipal waste and serious source of biomass, biodegradable industrial waste produced in industrial production.
In terms of the suitability of biomass for energy use, we can break down biomass suitable for use or manufacture of solid fuels, liquid fuels and gaseous fuels. In terms of biomass of agricultural or forestry talking about biomass waste that is produced as a by-product of the production activity or targeted biomass production, in which we advise and energy crops (fast-growing trees and plants, oil plants as well as maize silage …)
For the production of solid fuel or for direct use as fuel for heat, we can use all kinds of biomass of plant origin, such as various kinds of straw after harvest crops, woody branches and shoots of vines and fruit plants, but also wood from logging or forest management. These types of biomass can be used directly or after adjustment needed, for example after final drying, grinding or chipping. After treatment, the technology can be produced from biomass, the different types of solid fuels such as pellets or briquettes. Solid fuels can be produced from other types of biomass from industrial waste or of sorted biodegradable municipal waste.
For the manufacture of gaseous fuels, the most common is using biogas or landfill gas, biomass use different kinds of animal, vegetable biomass or municipal waste deposited on controlled landfill. The simplest technology for the production of biogas anaerobic fermentation technology, which represents the technological equipment of biogas plant. The feed, which is most commonly liquid manure and manure of livestock by the biomass of plant origin, and stored in a stirred fermenter, with air excluded and at a specific temperature for a specified time delay, we produce biogas. Biogas after some treatment and purification is used as an energy source for internal combustion engine cogeneration unit to produce electricity to produce useful heat. This technology is most widely used in developed countries of Western Europe. The highest degree of biogas upgrading its treatment on the quality of natural gas called biomethane. Landfill gas is a product of municipal solid waste landfills, incorporating a system of perforated pipes, and after some time the landfill, the decomposition of biomass in landfill produces mixed gas. The vacuum pump is sucked into the reservoir gas after cleaning is used to drive a cogeneration unit and is produced as electricity and heat.
The production of liquid fuels using agricultural biomass, mainly are various kinds of oilseeds for FAME production or crops for bioethanol. Liquid biofuels are used as a component of fuel for internal combustion engines, biodiesel and gasoline. Recently, the technology developed in the thermal decomposition of biomass (of various types) and production of oil and gas and second generation biofuels.
The use of biomass for energy purposes is the simplest form known since prehistoric times and the emergence of new technologies, the scope of its use continues to expand. Long as there is humanity, municipal sphere, there will be a planned agriculture and forest management; Until then, it will produce biomass and thanks to new technical knowledge and products from it.