The sun is for mankind the most affordable sources of energy that spread around in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Solar energy heats the atmosphere, land, oceans and seas, creating wind, causing evaporation of water gives strength waterways, vegetation and in the long run also creates fossil fuels. Sun is the only inexhaustible, safe and renewable energy sources throughout the year on which we can rely one hundred percent. However, there is however one major drawback – the storage of solar energy. That is why it is an important part of all devices that use solar energy. Very common means of storage is conversion into electricity. In areas with sufficient sunshine they have become a major power plant of several MW, for example. solar-thermal power plant Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System on an area of approximately 13 km2 southwest of Las Vegas in the US, or Shams in the UAE with an area of 2.5 square kilometers, consisting of 250 thousand individual solar panels.
Solar energy is a resource, not only to produce electricity, heat and light, as well as fuel for the operation of clean cars. In July 2013 humanity experienced in the field of transport, a historic moment when the aircraft Solar Impulse HB-SIA with 11,628 solar cells flew the longest distance until a machine of this kind, and across the United States.
Sun issued every second so much energy with which we can meet the needs of all mankind for over a thousand years. Amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth (118,000 TW) for one year exceeds the current global energy consumption to 20-thousand times. Even where solar radiation is more modest – eg. in the northern region of the country – energy falling on the roof of the house it is up to 10 times higher than the domestic consumption for heating and operation of electrical devices. It is true that with increasing global energy consumption, the difference between the generous “solar Meeting” and final energy consumption each year decreases. Mentioned difference, however, remains a stunning view of the existence of human society is a power almost inexhaustible.
Solar radiation is distributed more homogeneous than any other fuel supplies on Earth. The most common way of using solar energy at present is its conversion into electricity through photovoltaic cells and solar steam power, or its transformation into heat for water heating. It names in the world applies the process of concentration solar parabolic mirrors to the absorber with subsequent production of steam, which drives a generator. The use of parabolic mirrors is not limited to the field of very intense solar radiation.
As it regards the situation in the European Union of more than 50% dependent on imports of primary energy resources and therefore has set a priority to promote the use of domestic renewable resources. Clear leader according to the number of collectors installed as Germany, Austria and Greece. In per capita but the clear leader in Cyprus, where 90% of all homes equipped with solar systems.
The amount of incident solar energy on the territory of Slovakia about 200 times higher than current consumption of primary energy sources in the country. It is therefore a huge potential, which uses minimal. In our geographical conditions of energy hitting the surface reaches a value of 1 m2 from 2450 to 5400 kJ, enough to heat 30 liters of water at a temperature of 20-43 ° C.
In terms of solar energy through solar panels is not much difference between the various regions of Slovakia, among the coldest and warmest areas in the amount of incident energy that is only about 15%. The estimate was in 2011 in Slovakia in total 144,750 square meters of collector area. It is expected that the installation of solar collectors reaches the near term of more than 15,000 m2 per year. An experienced company can install a simple system for heating water in a family house in ideal conditions even for one day. Using solar collectors and photovoltaic panels, the user can prepare hot water and electricity alone and then enlarge its independence from supply monopoly market players.